Friday, February 7, 2020

Johnstown Flood Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Johnstown Flood - Research Paper Example It goes without saying that the Johnstown Flood was both a human and economic tragedy. More than 2,200 Americans were killed in this flood and it caused a huge economic damage amounting to $17 million (Foote 94). One peculiar thing about Johnstown Flood was that it turned out to be the first of its kind disaster relief operation that was handled by the American Red Cross, under the leadership of Clara Barton. Not to mention that the support for these relief operation emanated from across the United States of America and many foreign countries. International Red Cross to begin with was essentially meant to be a battlefield relief organization that was designed to provide help and relief to the victims of wars (Ritter 15). The American Red Cross in consonance with the spirit of its parent organization, also primarily intended to be a war relief organization (Ritter 15). The founder of the American Red Cross that is Clara Barton though had some experience in the battlefield relief opera tions during the American Civil War, it was her heartfelt belief that the American Red Cross could also evolve to be a major instrument of help during the peace time catastrophes and disasters (Ritter 15). In that sense the Johnstown flood came as an opportunity for the American Red Cross to extend help, aid and relief to the victims of an unprecedented peace time disaster. Thereby, the role played by Clara Barton in these relief operations does deserve a salient mention. The 67 year old founder of the American Red Cross determinedly rushed to the scene of disaster, once she came to know of it (Burton 118). She not only helped organize the requisite supplies and material donations, but also beckoned the friends, acquaintances and the citizens of America to accompany her in this relief cause (Burton 118). As it happens in most of the relief operations, the American Red Cross did not act alone to extend relief and help. Before Barton and her crew arrived on the scene, a group of dedic ated Johnstown residents had already initiated a relief operation intended at taking care of a number of local necessities like clean up and repairs, food distribution, restoring the local government, arranging the necessary supplies, etc (Douglas 336). Help and funds poured in from various sectors and voluntary organizations like citizen groups, The Children’s Aid Society, Yellow Cross, and foreign relief organizations (Douglas 336). The primary contribution of the American Red Cross was that it extended the emergency relief and help to the impacted people, before more permanent and elaborate relief distribution could be initiated and organized by the government and voluntary organizations. The role played by the American Red Cross was not merely limited to the immediate aftermath of this disaster, but rather happened to be prolonged, dealing with the provision of shelter and household supplies to the victims (Johnstown Flood Museum 1). Going by the fact that at the time of Johnstown Flood, the American Red Cross was not the exclusive local chapter of the International Red Cross, the organization did much to help and aid the survivors of this disaster (Johnstown Flood Museum 1). It helped nearly 25,000 people and distributed goods and supplies worth $211,000 (Johnstown Flood Museum 1). The American Red Cross also built the Red Cross Hotels that sheltered large

Wednesday, January 29, 2020

Catcher in the Rye Immaturity of Holden Caufield Essay Example for Free

Catcher in the Rye Immaturity of Holden Caufield Essay In J.D. Salinger’s The Catcher is the Rye, the protagonist Holden Caufield emerges from a trying and emotional series of events and does not grow emotionally but remains as immature as he was at the beginning of the novel. The story is about the difficulties of growing up. Most people come out of their teenager years as more responsible and mature people. Holden goes through many stressful events during the weekend, but instead of coming out more mature and grown up, he still has the same childish views on life; he is violent minded, depressed, confused, and irresponsible. Throughout the whole novel, Holden fantasizes about killing people, he is baffled by sex, and he does not think out his actions. During the beginning of the story, Holden thinks about killing people many times. He wanted to kill Stradlater, his roommate, for dating Jane Gallagher, his old friend. Holden knew what kind of guy Stradlater was and he was afraid he took advantage of Jane. Holden actually does fight Stradlater but gets hurt pretty badly. He then puts his hunting hat on and says it is a â€Å"people shooting† hat. Later on in the story, Holden again thinks about killing people. When Maurice, the pimp, hurts Holden and steals his money, Holden pretends that he had been shot in the stomach and his guts were falling out. He then pretends that he is staggering down the stairs with a gun to shoot Maurice and get revenge. Holden does not actually do this, but it shows how he is immature and violent. Also, while Holden is visiting Phoebe’s school, he sees that someone has written â€Å"fuck† on the wall. He becomes very angry and wants the bash the skull of whoever did that on the marble floor so they are all bloody. Again we see that Holden has much anger in him. He does not know how to deal with it and that shows he has not grown up. Holden also does not ever figure out his views on sex. At the beginning he hates Stradlater because he takes advantage of girls. He says has never done anything to a girl because he always stops when they say â€Å"stop†. Holden says that he would have to really like the girl’s face and really get to know the person before he could have sex with them. When Holden gets to New York he calls Faith Cavendish, who he thinks is a stripper. He does not even know her but he wants to have sex with her. This goes against everything he said before. Then when Holden gets to the hotel Maurice offers Holden a hooker and he accepts. Holden then does not do anything with her because he is nervous and it does not seem right to him. Once again Holden is confused about sex. It is a foreign thing to him and he never figures it out. He has ideals that he sets for himself but he never follows through. He even tries to ask Carl Luce, an old friend, about sex but Carl is uncomfortable talking about it and Holden learns nothing new. Holden never learns how to control his emotions and actions about love and sex. Lastly, Holden does not learn how to think out his actions. In the beginning, Holden makes numerous wrong decisions. He runs away from Pencey without even telling his parents he was kicked out. That was a bad decision because when his parents will have found out he would have been in even more trouble for not telling them. Holden also constantly lies to people throughout the book, which shows his immaturity. Later in the book Holden makes some really poor spur of the moment choices too. He scares Sally Hayes, a girl he goes on a date with, by telling her that they should get married and move up north and live in a cabin. He urges her to do it and even raises his voice. Sally cries and says he is crazy. This shows how Holden does not think out his actions, which in turn hurts himself and others. He also spends money without thinking. Holden spends money on taxis, hotel rooms, food, dates, and the nuns. He does not think about managing his money and then he is forced to take his sister Phoebe’s Christmas money. This hurts himself because he does not want to take Phoebe’s money and it also hurts her because she does not have money to buy people presents. Holden’s lack of thinking hurts himself and others. Lastly, Holden plans to run away to the west and just get away from everyone. He would have done it but Phoebe stops him. Running away would have been really dumb because he didn’t have much money or anywhere to go. Holden never learns to think out his actions and this shows that he does not grow up. In J.D. Salinger’s The Catcher is the Rye, the protagonist Holden Caufield emerges from a trying and emotional series of events and does not grow emotionally but remains as immature as he was at the beginning of the novel. Holden has a violent mind and he thinks about killing people throughout the novel. He also never figures out his views on sex. He thinks he knows his views on sex and what he would do put in certain situations, but he does not follow through with his ideals. Holden also never learns how to think out his decisions. He makes many choices without putting much thought into them and this hurts himself as well as others. Holden Caufield did not emerge from that weekend as a more mature person.

Monday, January 20, 2020

The Caste System Ideology in Akira Kurosaw’s Seven Samurai :: Movie Film Essays

The Caste System Ideology in Akira Kurosaw’s Seven Samurai Akira Kurosaw’s Seven Samurai is a film that encompasses various ideologies in order to allow the audience to understand the lives of Japanese people during the 1600’s. The film delves deep in social issues of the roles of the people within the society, the expectations as well as the obligations within the respected castes and elements within groups of ; suffering, working together, protecting family and working for the better good of the community. The caste system ideology is most clearly presented of all the ideologies named. The caste system is embedded in the Japanese culture as well as their way of life. Both the samurai and the farmers are bound by the roles that are imposed by the society. The samurai soldiers are proud protectors of the art of war, they accept their fate in battle as well as their duty to die for the causes they fight for. As the film comes to an end the samurai stand at the foot of the hill with the graves of the fallen soldiers, yet they do not mourn, rather accept the fate of the warriors and understand their place in the caste system. The farmers have a tough time gathering enough samurai to protect their village from the bandits. They are afraid of the warriors, yet they are giving up everything the village posses to employ the samurai to protect the village. After the village is safe, the farmers no longer want the samurai to stay imposing themselves in their village. The separation of the castes is rather obviously displayed in the love affair between the farmer’s daughter and the youngest samurai. The two are actually forbidden to be together due to their social status. This fact is evident when the battles end, the village is safe again, yet the girl chooses to stay with her village than to be with the young samurai. The crossover of the castes did not happen in this film, to show how love can transcend all boundaries and last forever; instead the two fall back into their respected roles in the society.

Sunday, January 12, 2020

Electoral Reform Green Paper: Strengthening Australia’s Democracy Essay

The term electoral system has broadly been used to refer to all elements of procedures used to choose or elect political representatives. However, the public discussion in Australian electoral system has narrowed down since the September polls. These include the mechanism voters preference over set of aspires are captured and further aggregated to produce the results of the elections. The description dismisses the important concerns considered critical criteria which should employed to select the groups, candidates and parties that will appear on the ballot paper. The two critical dimensions of the electoral systems are what Rae terms as ballot structure† and the â€Å"electoral formula.† According to Australian Government Electoral Reform Green Paper, (2013) the ballot structure is the choice of the electoral system that is presented to the electorate on the ballot papers and the procedures of recording their preferred candidate. Notably, the electoral formula is the ru le applied, given specific set of recorded electorates, to determine the victor or the winners. Ballot Structure of the Senate Elections Since 1934, it has been established that the ballot structure of the senate elections has been one full preferential candidate. Essentially, the electorate is the prima facie that the law permits to indicate the order of preference for every candidate appearing on the ballot paper. However, in 1948, the formula for electing the senate was changed from the originally majoritarian one to the version in which the single transferable vote proportional representation. As noted by Bonham, (2013) from the initial application of the system in 1949 until 1993, the number of candidates per vacancy steadily went up. Together with the increased number of senators from each state from six to ten in 1949, and from ten to twelve in 1984, the increased number of the electorate per vacancy produced a shocking growth in the ballot papers. Therefore, the increased length of the ballot papers coupled with the full preferential voting requirement encouraged voluminous number of the citizens to vote by si mply transcribing the numbers from how-to-vote cards given to the voters by the party agents at the polling stations. Furthermore, disparities are observable in the electoral systems as reported by Australian Government Electoral Reform Green Paper, (2013) in its argument, the party voting concept allows the candidates with low votes to legitimately build their votes up to the level of emerging a winner. Besides, the system insists that the votes transferred to them from other candidates must mirror the considered will of the electorate. Unlike the ticket voting, it permits the voters to adopt the preferred order of which they are ignorant of, or they are less concerned thereby surrendering their votes to parties. Besides, the party voting rather than voting individual candidates denies the voters absolute flexibility as a proportional representative voting system. Notwithstanding this, a trend emerged during the period of 1949 to 1983 for the senate elections to use the informal vote. Therefore, since 1970 to 1983, at every senate elections the rating of the informal voting nationally was over 9 percent. However, during the senate elections in 1974, in New South Wales, the voters had a task to order 73 senatorial candidates correctly for them to cast their votes formally. During the tenure of Whitlam Government, the stakeholders opted to retire the requirements for full preferential numbering; however, the overwhelming number of opposition senate in the opposition blocked the Bills. Finally, the current system of electoral system of ticket voting â€Å"above the line† voting system as well as full preferential electoral system referred to as â€Å"below the line† was introduced (Farrell & McAllister, 2003). Notable differences in the two electoral systems are identifiable in the procedures. In the preferential system, the electorate makes decisions on the most desirable candidate to the least. However, when no candidate attains the required majority votes, the candidates in possession of the least number of votes are awarded according to her or his wishes and the following preference is then counted. This process is repeated until that time a particular candidate attains an absolute majority. Unlike the proportional representation system, the above the line system in which the candidates are elected on the preference of their proportional representation in the party. Farrell & McAllister, (2003) points out that the elected surplus of the elected candidate votes of the first quota is then distributed in a fraction that values the continuing candidate of the next preference shown on the line. In a nutshell, the candidates are elected until vacancies are entirely filled. When selecting the senators, the voters use preferential voting system. The preferential voting system allows the voters to list the candidates in their preferred order. The Australian cross-party parliamentary committee has recommended tough and party rules and changes to the voting system of the senates. This is geared towards stopping the minor electoral games. The joint standard committee on electoral matters recommended the changing of the electoral laws for optional preferential above the line voting and optional partial below the line voting in the senate. According to the proposers, this would give the voters’ additional control over the flow of their preference by giving them the option to rank all the parties above the line (Farrell & McAllister, 2003). Above all, the process would make it easier for the electorate to choose to vote below the line requiring ranking a minimum of six candidates. The current senate voting laws, the voters have the power to choose one pa rty above the line. Besides, their preference flows are determined solely by the party, or they must number all the boxes below the line to distribute their preferred candidate evenly. Moreover, the current electoral system leads to election of senate candidates of those occupying their or second group of the popular party. This leads to election of the senators with very small votes. This system differs from the preferential representation system which their tally is an absolute indicator of their support by the people. In fact, in a preferential voting system, these are no scale of measuring popularity of senators. However, they are rather defined by the electorate in terms of comparison with the other candidates. In this voting system, it is easy to conclude on hypothetical examples in which the candidate with zero polls on first preference would have defeated all the other opponents in a head to head contest. The absolute difference in the two voting systems can also be observed in the strategic manipulation of voters, thus sacrificing democratic rights of the electorate. Strategically, most commentators have argued that ticket voting system can be manipulated by preference harvesting. Kelly, (2008) asserts that the system involves micro parties exchanging their voting tickets, hoping party with least votes would ascend to senate. The preference harvesting was clearly observable in the 2013 voting results. Essentially, the preference harvesting differs from the individual electoral process because t is pragmatic. Unlike the representative voting system which considers the ideological alignments of the electorate, the system is based on the basis where the electorate hardly has control on the outcome. It is established in the outcome of the elections that the above the line voting system has no credit to the voters. Above all fundamental differences in the two electoral processes, the outcome of the election should be determined by the wishes of the voters. In the evidence of the last election, there was no observable connection between the preference that the ticket voting system attributed to the voters and the ones they actually held. This raises a key difference in the electoral systems and on which covers the wills of the voters. Proportional representation The common feature of proportional representation is that the political parties must exceed a certain vote threshold in order to win the seats. It is clear that the previous election results have led to effortless demands for electoral reforms with the constitutional objectives addressed. Essential research done on the 2013 election found that the 38 percent of the small parties in the senate were beneficial for democracy. Besides, the most favorable, if the public opinion is to be observed is the abolition of the group voting tickets, currently operational. The proportional representation is critical to chapter seven of the constitution that requires the election process to be left in the conscious decisions of the voters. Thus, the obvious route to consciously respect the constitution in the electoral reforms is to copy the example of the New South Wales and distribute voting preference as the voters allocate them, or authorizes the voters to number the every box above the line. Additionally, the determination of the parties to respect section seven of the constitution is reflected in the representative voting system. According to section seven of the constitution, the senate shall be compost of senators for each state, directly elected by the electorate. Justifiably, the in 1984 the Chief Justice of the High Court rejected the above the line senate voting on grounds that the section required the voters vote for individual candidates as they wish to choose as senatorial representatives (Ghazarian & Monash University, 2010). However, the rule did not admit that above the line voting system amounted to any contradiction other than section seven. Notably, the principle that held by the proportional representation system of the electoral system of the senate must be based on choosing individual candidates rather than parties were, nevertheless, objective. As noted by (Kelly, 2012) more than a single authority involved in electoral reforms suggested that the voting system would be violated by the provisions that limited individual candidates in respect to aggregate of their party votes. Ideally, this is can be observed from the electoral threshold based on individual candidate would eliminate all the major party candidates with the exception of those at the top of the party ticket. Critics of the proportional representation voting system highlights that it not clear that the preference threshold would attain this. They assert that there might not be a handy alternative for challenging the above the line voting system that limited the candidates from choosing their preferred candidate. Besides, holding to the backers of the individuals with the good taste of the proportional representative voting, voting for the parties remains a constitutional disorder (Kelly, 2012). Arguably, it is unreasonable to penalize the political parties performing poorly for failing to meet the threshold seems to pass the consequences to the electorate who voted for them. Besides, democracy foundations of any conscious voting system respects the fact that the vote belongs to the electorate who registered, however, not to a particular party that the above the line voting which happen to give first preference to particular political parties. Happily, a report from Australian Government Electoral Reform Green Paper, (2013) asserts that the adoption of the proportional representative will grant observable credit to the most honest alternative of optional preferential voting above the line. Besides, the electoral body in the line of meeting section seven of the constitution examined photo identification, no-brainer of prohibiting people as serving the state as registered officers for more than a single party and tightening of the late campaign blackout. The senate electoral system should be changed to adopt the optional preferential voting. . The greatest impact of the 2013 election of preference harvesting should be abolished. Notably, the results of 2013 elections were unusual and interesting, preferably in the senate where small parties enter into back door negotiations. This raises the integrity of the voting process and the constitutional threshold. Holding that below the line voting system is constitutionally required, it is wise to argue that the basic criterion for election of the senate should that that puts the democratic rights of the voters in the heart. This can be achieved by allowing the voters to record their preferences truthfully and meaningfully. Therefore, considering the role of the senate in the constitutional reforms, the nearly and easily achievable deal is the OPV. However, the OPV does not achieve it fully. Essentially, the system does not permit the electorate to express equal preference for more than one candidate. Besides, it does not permit voting indifference to be shown with an exception from the least preferred candidate for the voter. The good news holds that the OPV does not require the voter to write large numbers on the ballot paper purporting to express preferences that are never held. But the system will ensure that the numbers on the ballot papers express the true preference of the voters. Besides, the introduction of the OPV below the line will automatically default the use of above the line voting. The key policy for implementation will be to use ne ballot paper to suffice the votes. The single ballot raises expresses as genuine preference the voter holds. Bonham, (2013) argues that unless the voters are required to write more than one ballot paper, vote exhaustion may lead to the election of candidates with less than a quota. Conclusion Voting in Australia is compulsory and uses preference ballot in single seats for the representatives of the house. Today, there are many parties that usually vie for the senate. Although it varies from state, dozens run and some parties gunners no votes. However, due to the preferential allocation system, it is equally possible to be elected to a senate even with less than 14.3 percent of the primary votes (Ghazarian & Monash University, 2010). For instance, in New South Wales the senate papers are printed in 7-point font and the voters are given magnifying lenses to read them. In a nutshell, proportional representation system is advised to lead to proportional results of the election. Besides, parties should win the senatorial seats on the proportion of their vote size. However, to uphold the integrity of the constitution, the senate should adopt democratic voting variations such as single transferable vote which votes for candidates rather than parties. References Australian Government.( 14 November 2013) Electoral Reform Green Paper: Strengthening Australia’s Democracy (2009), at Bonham, Kevin.( 14 November 2013) â€Å"Senate Reform: Change This System, But To What?†, at http://kevinbonham.blogspot.jp/2013/10/senate-reform-change-this-system-but-to.html, accessed Farrell, D. M., & McAllister, I. (January 01, 2003). The 1983 change in surplus vote transfer procedures for the Australian senate and its consequences for the single transferable vote. Australian Journal of Political Science, 38, 3, 479-491. Ghazarian, Z., & Monash University. (2010). Australian minor parties in transition in the Senate, 1949-2007. http://www.dpmc.gov.au/consultation/elect_reform/strengthening_democracy, accessed Kelly, N. (2008). Evaluating Australian electoral reforms: 1983-2007.Kelly, N. (2012). Directions in Australian electoral reform: Professionalism and partisanship in electoral management. Canberra: ANU E Press. Source document

Saturday, January 4, 2020

Protein Misfolding And Alzheimer s Disease - 1205 Words

Protein misfolding and Alzheimer’s disease Proteins are fundamental biological molecules that are involved in most cellular processes and perform a wide range of roles instructed by DNA. Polypeptide chains are coded for by DNA, whereby the genetic code is transcribed and translated into the correct sequence of amino acids connected by peptide bonds. However, polypeptides are not the same as the functional entities called proteins. Polypeptide chains must undergo sometimes complex folding and processing to become operative proteins with the correct three-dimensional conformation. (1) Correctly folded proteins have essential stability and selectivity. Thus, when the faithful folding mechanism fails and proteins misfold, they have a tendency to aggregate and cause an array of diseases including Alzheimer’s. (2) Stages of folding Protein folding is the mechanism by which a polypeptide chain assumes its native conformation. This structure is pre-assigned by the genetic code. The first stage of folding occurs when the particular sequence of amino acids called the primary structure begins to fold into a number of basic shapes called the secondary structure, the most stable and therefore most common of which being alpha helices and beta-pleated sheets. One polypeptide may contain more than one secondary structure. Secondary structure of proteins can be explained through the pattern of hydrogen bonding that takes place in the polypeptides.(3) In alpha helices hydrogen bonds formShow MoreRelatedA Brief History Of Alzheimer s Disease1675 Words   |  7 PagesIntroduction 1.1 A brief overview of Alzheimer’s diseases The life expectancy is now doubled from the last century in the developed countries due to the revolution progress in medicine and health mainly to chronic diseases. Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is one of the most well-known and familiar diseases in the modern societies AD was first reported by Alois Alzheimer in 1907.The AD is the most common type of dementia and a neurodegenerative disease characterized by the damage of nerve cells in theRead MorePharmacotherapy Treatment Of Alzheimer s1541 Words   |  7 Pages 604301973 Pharmacotherapy Treatment of Alzheimer’s: Donepezil A disease that sweeps across the nation and affects nearly 80% of the population ages 60 and up is known as Alzheimer’s. A misconception that many people believe about Alzheimer’s is that it is a part of getting older. It is not true. Alzheimer’s is an intricate neurodegenerative disorder associated with â€Å"protein misfolding and aggregation, oxidative stress, mitochondrial abnormalities and neuroinflammatory process at a molecular level†Read MoreThe Discovery That Double Stranded Rna Can Efficiently Silence Gene Expression2783 Words   |  12 Pagesto down-regulate pathological genes involved in disease. This Neuroscience Methods Review will outline the molecular basis of gene silencing using small interfering RNA (siRNA), and describe how it has contributed to our understanding of brain function using examples of neurodegenerative disease. Specifically, this review will explain how this technique was used to identify a number of previously unknown genes that contribute to Huntington’s disease, and consider what RNAi promises for the futureRead MoreAlzheimer s Disease : A Complete Look At The Onset And Progression Essay2369 Words   |  10 PagesAlzheimer s Disease - A Complete Look at the Onset and Progression Alzheimer s disease is a condition that affects the cognitive status of many people around the world regardless of wealth, ethnicity, intelligence or any other factor. A specific case study that demonstrates the destructive nature of the disease can be seen in the case of Akram. Akram was an 80-year-old female with a past medical history of hypertension, diverticulitis, transient ischemic attack (TIA), and diabetes. She had a historyRead MoreAlzheimer s Disease Is A Condition That Affects The Cognitive Status Essay2617 Words   |  11 Pages Alzheimer s disease is a condition that affects the cognitive status of many people around the world regardless of wealth, ethnicity, intelligence or any other factor. A specific case study that demonstrates the destructive nature of the disease can be seen in the case of Akram. Akram was an 80-year-old woman with a past medical history of hypertension, diverticulitis, transient ischemic attack (TIA), and diabetes. Her history did include a serious head injury at the age of 45 from an automobile

Thursday, December 19, 2019

Strong Attachment and Life Changes for Children - 798 Words

A transition in childcare is moving from one situation to another this usually involves a change of a physical environment and a change of carer for part of the day such transitions could include child-minders, private day nurseries, crà ¨che, children centre, primary to secondary school, moving house, moving school, puberty, nappy’s to toilet and cot to bed. If a child is moving countries it will be major effect on their social development because it will be a complete different place for the child, they will need to go to a new school and make new friends, intellectually the child will not be learning as well because it’s a new area, this will be a big transition for them but also this can be good for the child because they are good at making new friends also the friends can show them around the environment which will be a positive development. If a child’s parents have a divorce, this can bring a big transition to the child’s life. Not getting love from both parents. The child might be upset most of the time and have low self-esteem. They might be upset about this in school which might make them behind on work and they might not be interacting with friends and family. Physically the child will not be eating properly because of stress of parents and also wouldn’t learn intellectually as well. Some children may experience frequent or multiple transitions this could include parents separating, moving from primary to secondary. Moving schools or houses. Moving from primaryShow MoreRelatedThe Attachment Theory and Factors Damaging to Attachment1163 Words   |  5 PagesAttachment Theory Relationships are the building block for personality and are significant in children’s ability to grow into substantial individuals who can thrive in an often harsh world. 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One of the first theorists that formulated this theory was John Bowlby. He proposed that, based on infants interactions with caregivers, infants construct expectations about relationships in the form of internal working models- cognitive representationsRead MoreAttachment Is The Best Educational Environment For Their Students1313 Words   |  6 Pagespleading their father to stay with them during parent drop-off at school. This is known as attachment and is a very critical part of child development. Attachment is a strong emotional bond that forms between infant and caregiver in the se cond half of the child’s first year. (Parke 201) Although attachment is developed within the first year of a child’s life, it is measurable way beyond that time-frame. Attachment is categorized in four different ways. It is important for preschool teachers to be able